When to use ‘These’ or ‘those’ and ‘This’ or ‘That’? Does this always confuse you? It is because of all of these forms this/that, these/those and who/whom behave in the same way. The usage of this, that, these and those are most confusing. Let us see how we can differentiate between them.

This (Single object/place/person which is near):
1. For people and things that are near to the speaker/listener.
2. To introduce someone.
3. On the phone to introduce yourself.
4. To talk about things that are near in time.
5. Within time phrases such as this summer, this winter, this week, this year etc.
6. To refer to something that is going to happen in the future or something that we are going to say or do. ex. “This car will win the race”.

These (Multiple objects/places/persons who are near):
1. For people and things that are not near to the speaker/listener.
2. To talk about things that are near in time.

That (Single object/place/person which is far):
1. For people and things that are not near to the speaker/listener
2. To talk about things that are further away in time.
3. To refer back to something that has just happened.

Those(Multiple objects/places/persons which are far):
1. For people and things that are not near us.
2. To talk about things that are further away in time.

Who (Used while referencing/questioning about a person/subject)
1. For people that are unknown to the speaker/listener. ex. “Who parked the car on the road?”
2. Usually used for referencing person or group of persons. “We all know who pulled that prank.”

Whom (Used while referring to the object of a sentence)
1. The object of a sentence is having something done to it. ex. “Whom should I vote for?”
2. Referring to the object whose possession/target/motive is unknown. ex. “We wondered whom the book was about.”

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